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Thursday, 27 November 2014

9 Sumber Energi Alternatif untuk Masa Depan

anton23ftr / / 43
Mengapa kita membutuhkan sumber energi alternatif?
Penggunaan energi alternatif akan memberi perlindungan suatu bangsa pada kenaikan harga bahan bakar fosil, serta mengurangi ketergantungan pada negara-negara lain untuk pasokan minyak.
Selain itu, sumber energi alternatif akan membatasi konsumsi sumber energi tak terbarukan seperti minyak bumi dan batubara, serta yang paling penting, mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan dan efek negatif pada sumber daya alam seperti air, udara, hutan, dll.
Peningkatan penggunaan sumber energi alternatif pada akhirnya akan menciptakan lapangan kerja baru sehingga mempercepat pertumbuhan ekonomi. 

Jenis Sumber Energi Alternatif

Berikut akan diulas mengenai macam-macam sumber energi alternatif.
1. Tenaga Nuklir
Proses reaksi nuklir terkendali bisa menjadi sumber energi alternatif yang memiliki potensi amat besar.
Proses nuklir tersebut dikenal pula sebagai reaksi fisi. Pada pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir, panas yang dihasilkan oleh reaksi fisi digunakan untuk menguapkan air.

Uap yang dihasilkan lantas digunakan untuk menggerakkan generator yang kemudian menghasilkan listrik.
Survei yang dilakukan pada tahun 2007 menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 14% pasokan listrik dunia dipenuhi oleh pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir.
2. Energi Biomassa
Materi biologis yang masih hidup atau telah mati disebut sebagai biomassa.Biomassa umum digunakan sebagai sumber bahan bakar atau untuk produksi industrial.

Tanaman hidup, pohon mati, dan serpihan kayu merupakan bagian dari biomassa.Sekitar 0,5 listrik di Amerika Serikat tercatat dihasilkan dari energi biomassa.
3. Gas Alam
Sebelum digunakan, gas alam biasanya dikompresi terlebih dahulu hingga berubah wujud menjadi cair.

Pembakaran gas alam memang masih menghasilkan gas rumah kaca, namun dibandingkan bahan bakar lain seperti bensin atau solar, emisi gas alam dianggap masih lebih bersih.
4. Panas Bumi
Panas bumi merupakan sumber energi alternatif yang ekonomis, dapat diandalkan, dan ramah lingkungan.
Panas bumi merupakan sumber energi yang dapat diperbarui sehingga bebas dari isu kelangkaan.

Penggunaan tenaga panas bumi dapat dilacak hingga jaman Romawi kuno. Pada saat itu, panas bumi populer digunakan sebagai pemanas ruangan dan untuk keperluan mandi.
Saat ini, panas bumi merupakan sumber energi alternatif yang bisa digunakan sebagai pembangkit listrik.
5. Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air
Pembangkit listrik tenaga air mungkin masih menjadi sumber energi alternatif yang populer.

Tenaga air merupakan sumber energi terbarukan sekaligus ramah lingkungan karena tidak menghasilkan limbah.
6. Tenaga Angin
Turbin angin lazim digunakan untuk mengubah energi angin menjadi listrik. Catatan menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 1,5% pasokan listrik dunia dihasilkan oleh tenaga angin.

Meskipun angka tersebut terbilang kecil, namun persentasenya selalu meningkat dari tahun ke tahun.
7. Tenaga Matahari
Tenaga surya umum digunakan sebagai pembangkit listrik.

Perkembangan teknologi memungkinkan sel surya semakin ringan, mudah diangkut, dan lebih efisien.
8. Energi Gelombang Laut
Seperti namanya, gelombang laut bisa digunakan untuk menghasilkan listrik.Teknologi ini, meskipun memiliki potensi besar, belum banyak digunakan.

Rintangan utama dalam memperluas penggunaannya adalah dampak negatif yang akan terjadi pada lingkungan laut.
Pembangkit listrik dari gelombang laut berpotensi mengganggu usaha penangkapan ikan sekaligus bentang alam alami lingkungan laut.
9. Energi Pasang Surut
Seperti energi dari gelombang laut, energi pasang surut juga belum banyak digunakan.
Namun, para ahli melihat pasang surut sebagai sumber energi alternatif yang menjanjikan di masa depan.

Pasang surut dianggap menjanjikan karena mudah diprediksi tidak seperti energi matahari dan angin.
Salah satu faktor utama yang membuat teknologi pasang surut belum banyak diterapkan adalah biaya yang tinggi serta langkanya daerah yang memiliki perbedaan pasang surut besar.
Sumber : Dari berbagai sumber


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